Physical Self-Protection from Conspecifics


I - Natural Selection


Neurochem Substrates:



EPA Total Score: 17/100

Theoretical evidence consists of scientific theories from the evolutionary behavioral and biological sciences (or allied fields), discussion of theoretical selection pressures that may have shaped the EPA, and other theoretical arguments without empirical data. Game theory and computer/AI models also count as theoretical evidence. Well-supported EPAs should appear specially designed by evolution to solve specific adaptive problems throughout human history and could not have simply arisen by chance.

Theoretical Subscore: 0/60

Psychological evidence consists of empirical evidence drawn from the human behavioral sciences and consists of data from developmental, behavioral, perceptual, emotional, and cognitive studies, including surveys, experiments, quasi-experiments, and observational data. Well-supported EPAs should show reliable emotional, cognitive, behavioral, or perceptual outcomes under specified conditions.

Psychological Subscore: 0/60

Medical evidence consists of evidence drawn from clinical data, observations, and case studies from disciplines including medicine, clinical psychology, and neuropsychology. Data on mental health, psychiatric disorders, neurological syndromes, epidemiology, physical health and mortality, and nutrition/exercise are all considered medical evidence.

Medical Subscore: 0/60

Physiological evidence consists of data pertaining to neuroanatomy, biochemistry, morphology, and other studies of human physiology or brain–behavior relationships. Physiological evidence supportive of EPAs includes neural structures, pathways, neurotransmitters, and so on.

Physiological Subscore: 21/60

Cross-cultural evidence consists of anthropological and ethnological data, psychological studies on human universals, and other evidence that compares or contrasts the EPA across different human cultures. Well-supported EPAs should be observable across cultures or vary predictably across cultures based on systematic differences consistent with theory.

Cross-Cultural Subscore: 28/60

Genetic evidence consists of data from behavioral/population genetics, molecular genetics, gene mapping studies, gene manipulation studies, and so on. Well-supported EPAs may show a genetic basis.

Genetic Subscore: 7/60

Phylogenetic evidence consists of comparative data from nonhuman species, both in the lab and in nature. Data from paleontology, cladistics, ethology, and comparative psychology are all phylogenetic evidence, especially if they show “related” traits in nonhuman species.

There is currently no submitted Phylogenetic evidence to support or challenge the existence of this EPA.

Curators can click here to add some.

Phylogenetic Subscore: 0/60

Hunter–gatherer evidence consists of data on prehistoric, historical, or extant hunter–gatherer cultures. Evidence that hunter–gatherers shared the trait with industrialized contemporary humans is supportive of the EPA, while evidence that the trait is/was not present in hunter–gatherer societies challenges the status of the trait as an EPA.

There is currently no submitted Hunter-Gatherer evidence to support or challenge the existence of this EPA.

Curators can click here to add some.

Hunter-Gatherer Subscore: 0/60